PAC Newsletter

 Fall 1999

 Vol. 21



This issue of the PAC Newsletter is a special edition supported by an organizational grant from the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. We have designed it to provide archaeologists and preservationists in the state with a snapshot of PAC and of our activities. We hope that this will first give you a sense of the vitality of the Pennsylvania archaeological community and second encourage more of the state's archaeologists to join the organization. Some of you may wonder why you should join PAC. You may think that it is solely an organization of archaeological cultural resource professionals or contractors and that our interests are restricted to compliance issues. In fact PAC's membership includes academics, archaeologists from state and federal agencies, and members of large and small consulting firms. We include researchers and teachers, museum-based archaeologists, regulators, planners, and retirees. PAC is a community of archaeologists from across the Commonwealth who are interested in protecting and understanding Pennsylvania's archaeological heritage. Why should you consider joining the Pennsylvania Archaeological Council? For the past 15 years, PAC has informed its membership about archaeological issues in the state. We have testified in legislative hearings on Act 70 and public hearings on state mining regulations. We have been a leader in creating archaeological education programs including Pennsylvania Archaeology Month, the student essay contest, traveling exhibits, speaker lists, K-12 curricula, and traveling trunks. We have developed an annual series of symposia on current research questions of various cultural periods, and worked with the PHMC to publish the first volume on the Archaic (available for only $12.95) and the forthcoming volumes on the Paleo-Indian and Early-Middle Woodland periods. We recently received a grant from the PHMC to investigate the model of archaeological site distribution on which the Survey Priorities Plan is based. In other words, PAC's interests are varied and balanced. One of our goals is to support research and publication of archaeological data, another is public outreach about the state's heritage, and a third is to encourage informed policy decisions by the legislature and agencies. We promote site preservation through the student essay contest and a new program of site stewardship awards. We are pleased that we will be able to present the first site stewardship award this spring to those that have been responsible for preservation and interpretative efforts for a petroglyph site- the God Rock. However, PAC can only be effective if it includes all of the professional archaeological community. It is an organization that does not have a professional staff; instead, we rely on the individual efforts and talents of our members. If you are interested in joining or have colleagues who may be interested, contact Dan Roberts, Vice-President and Chair of the Membership Committee for details. The application requires only a letter requesting membership and your vita. And if you are a member, try to come to one of the semi-annual meetings. I hope to see you in the spring. Finally, I have to close on a sad note. This week, Dr. James Hatch of the Anthropology Department at Penn State University passed away. Jim was one of the founding members of PAC. In recent years, his interests shifted to the southeast and he left the organization. However, his influence continues through all his former students who are active members today. All of us on the Executive Board and the membership extend our deepest sympathy to his family. We all have lost a friend and colleague.

Beverly ChiarulIi
Indiana University of Pennsylvania

Editor's Note: In keeping with the aim of introducing PAC to a wider audience, we are including a brief history of the organization, prepared by Verna Cowin, one of the founding members.

History of PAC

The organizational meeting of the Pennsylvania Archaeology Council (PAC) was held December 18 and 19, 1980 at Carnegie Museum's Powdermill Nature Preserve in Ligonier Valley. Attending were Ronald Michael and James Herbstritt from California University of Pennsylvania; Barry Kent, Stephen Warfel, Kurt Carr, and Brenda Barrett from the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission; Verna L. Cowin, Richard George, Stanley Lantz, and James Richardson III from Carnegie Museum of Natural History; William Johnson and Ronald Carlisle from the University of Pittsburgh; James Hatch and Conran Hay from Penn State University; W. Fred Kinsey III from North Museum, Franklin and Marshall College; and Martha Otto from the Ohio Historical Society. Otto was recruited to serve as a resource person and to report on the structure and mission of the Ohio Archaeological Council. In 1980 Pennsylvania had an active regional archaeology program and the group assembled to determine if there was a need for an organization to serve as a lobby or pressure group to aid the Bureau for Historic Preservation (BHP) and the State Historic Preservation Officer. Following discussions, those present voted unanimously to form an advisory group to be called the Pennsylvania Archaeological Council or PAC. A chair, Ron Michael, and a Secretary-Treasurer, W.F. Kinsey, III were established as the governing body. Jim Hatch was appointed the chair of a committee to draft the constitution and by-laws. Minutes of the original meeting indicate that establishing qualifications for membership was an issue to be resolved, but the following broad concepts were accepted: "Membership should be relatively small and restricted and should be limited to practicing archaeologists who are either Pennsylvania residents or who are working for Pennsylvania institutions. Membership should be limited to those having demonstrated research interests in Pennsylvania archaeology. A Membership Committee should be a standing committee of the Council." Following adoption of a constitution in 1981, PAC was established to serve as a forum for professional archaeologists interested in the protection and preservation of Pennsylvania's archaeological resources. PAC's mission was four-fold: 1) to provide scientific leadership, 2) to encourage high standards of professionalism, 3) to promote creative archaeological research, and 4) to communicate its interests to both its membership and to citizens with similar interests. The constitution called for an annual meeting but the group soon agreed to sponsor a second session to be held in conjunction with the annual meeting of the Society for Pennsylvania Archaeology (SPA) during which a symposium relating to Commonwealth archaeology was sponsored by PAC. Papers from the 1992 session appeared in the "Pennsylvania Archaeologist" 64(1) and recent PAC symposia currently form a new series, "Recent Research in Pennsylvania Archaeology," published by the PHMC. A newsletter was established to aid in efforts to communicate problems and solutions to members and interested parties. A highly active education committee developed and distributed archaeology programs to Commonwealth teachers. PAC, SPA, and the PHMC initiated Pennsylvania Archaeology Week in 1991. This event soon expanded to a month-long celebration with a variety of programs, including excavations at City Island in Harrisburg, an annual poster, and an essay contest for students. Over the years, PAC adjusted the original constitution and by-laws to meet changing needs within the Commonwealth. The organization has increased in size and the membership, once heavily associated with universities and museums, has broadened to include archaeologists affiliated with cultural resource management firms.

Verna L. Cowin
Carnegie Museum


I am completing a book, Archaeology: Basic Field Methods, for Kendall/Hunt Publishers and am in need of some graphics. In particular, I'm looking for photos/slides of: well shafts under excavation (with requisite safety precautions); large block excavations that employ balks between units; aerial or any type of photo showing patterned vegetation growth, crop marks, or introduced species indicating the possible location of archaeological deposits/sites; wet-site excavations; people outfitted for survey in remote areas; people dressed in TYVEC suits working on sites associated with hazardous waste; any glitzy shot (color print or slide)of field work that might make be part of a book cover. I will consider black and white or color prints, and slides. All materials will be acknowledged and returned (eventually). Thanks for your help. Michael Stewart, Department of Anthropology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122; Please note the numeral "1" in the email address.


Temple University archaeologists have concluded a third field season on Hendricks Island, Bucks County, Pennsylvania. Work continues to focus on locating and testing sites on the 120 acre property included in the Delaware Canal State Park. To-date, 5 Native American sites/deposits have been located that encompass Late Woodland through Late Archaic times. Deeper/older deposits have been noted but their exact affiliation has yet to be determined. Of special interest are multiple occupation floors spanning the Middle Woodland period (circa AD 900/800 to 900/1000 BC). This past season, excavations of Early Woodland/Terminal Archaic deposits produced basal fragments of a flat-bottomed ceramic pot. A soapstone tempered ware has also been recovered from comparable levels. Stratigraphically associated with these ceramics are fishtail projectiles and what can best be described as Lackawaxen-like points. Prior research in the Delaware Valley has shown that these Lackawaxen forms can be associated with early pottery and Early Woodland radiocarbon dates (see The Status of Woodland Prehistory in the Middle Atlantic Region, Archaeology of Eastern North America, 1995, by R. M. Stewart). We hope to run T-L dates on various fire cracked rock and ceramic samples to better our understanding of the natural and cultural stratigraphy of the island.

submitted by R. M. Stewart
Temple University


Winners of 1999 Pennsylvania Archaeological Council Archaeological Essay Contest The Pennsylvania Archaeological Council recognized the winners of its annual archaeological essay contest in Harrisburg on October 2, 1999. More than 500 essays were received from students in the 4th-9th grades from throughout the Commonwealth. This was the eighth annual contest.

Students submitted essays on the topic "What are Archaeological Sites and Why is it Important to Protect Them". According to Dr. Beverly Chiarulli, President of the Archaeological Council and Director of Archaeological Services at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, "Through the years, students have shown a remarkable interest in archaeology in the Commonwealth. They recognize that sites are fragile and are threatened by construction and development. The contest gives them the opportunity to provide us with ideas for protecting sites. We call archaeological sites "Pennsylvania's Hidden Memories", because sites represent a part of our heritage that most people never see. You could stand on a site and never realize that you were in a place where people may have lived a thousand years ago." As part of the 1999 Archaeology Month Activities, the Council has created a website called "Discovering Pennsylvania's Hidden Memories" which will eventually link each county to an archaeological site in that county to explore the diverse resources in the Commonwealth. The site can be reached through the address:

The essay contest is held each year in October in conjunction with the state's celebration of Archaeology Month. This year, there were events throughout the Commonwealth including the Annual Excavation on City Island from September 24-October 7 sponsored by the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. The winners of the Essay Contest were recognized in an awards ceremony on City Island on October 2, 1999 at 1:00pm. This year's winners include:

4th-6th Grade Contest:

1st Place: Amber Parise, Pallisades Middle School, Kintnersville, PA 18930, Mrs. Fischer (teacher)

2nd Place: Rawshanak Rufiei, Highland Elementary School , Abington, PA 19001 Mrs. Heuer (teacher)

3rd Place: David Vogle, Latrobe Elementary School, Latrobe, PA 15650 Mr. Hixson (Teacher)

Honorable Mention: Allen Miller, Rebersburg Elementary School (Rebersburg, PA), Kevin Patel, Frankstown Elementary School (Hollidaysburg, PA); Kassandre Coughlin, Nazareth Area Middle School, (Nazareth, PA); Timothy Rohrbach, Boyertown Elementary School (Boyertown, PA), Raquel Ramos, F.D. Roosevelt School (Bristol, PA); Rebecca Kieselbach, Pallisades Middle School (Kintersville, PA)

7th-9th Grade Contest:

1st Place: Linda Cendes, The Ellis School, Pittsburgh, PA, 15206 Dr. Ellen Bedell (Teacher)

2nd Place: Stephanie Lane, Pottsgrove High School, Pottstown, PA 19464 Mrs. Gerhart (Teacher)

3rd Place: Lauren Firewiez, Carrick High School, Pittsburgh, PA 15210 Mr. Sopkowiak (Teacher)

Honorable Mention: Andrea Noel Cutruzzula (The Ellis School, Pittsburgh, PA), Kerri Zinn (Meyersdale Area Junior High School, Meyersdale, PA), Tracy Lichty (Meyersdale Area High School, Meyersdale, PA), Ryan Devlin (Brockway Area High School, Brockway, PA), Ken Wagner (Columbia High School, Columbia, PA), Jennifer Brandon (Pottsgrove High School, Pottstown, PA) Brenda Barrett, Director of the Bureau for Historic Preservation congratulates Winners of the 7-9th Grade Essay Contest during the Award Ceremony in October. l-r; 2nd place winner Stephanie Lane, Pottsgrove High School, Pottstown, Mrs. Margaret Gerhart, Pottsgrove High School, 1st Place Winner Linda Cendes, The Ellis School, Pittsburgh, Brenda Barrett.




[Members are invited to submit comments on issues of current concern. With luck, varying points of view will be presented.]


by Mark A. McConaughy

Two years ago I bought at Fujifilm DX-9 Digital Camera that I briefly wrote about in the Fall, 1998 PAC Computer Column. I now have a great deal more experience using it and this column will be devoted to digital cameras as useful tools for archaeologists.

Digital cameras are items worthy of consideration as "essential" field equipment. However, they will not, at least at this time, totally replace 35 mm cameras for documentation of field work. Figures 1 and 2 are digital shots of artifacts set up as they would be for 35 mm documentation photographs. It should be apparent that 35 mm cameras still provide higher quality and sharper photographs than these digital shots, but they are quite recognizable artifacts. Also, black-and-white photographs and negatives (in either 35 mm or 4 x 5 in. formats depending on the requirements) are still the required archival image documentation for field work. Nevertheless, a digital camera can provide fast photo documentation for field work.

Figure 1: Points from 46Hk34
Figure 2: Watson Farm Cordmarked Pottery from 46Hk34


Figure 3: Montgomery Incised Sherds.

Digital photos can be immediately downloaded into a computer and then transferred via email to a main office or oversight agency as needed or requested. A consultant does not have to wait until 35 mm pictures are taken in to be developed and processed to provide project administrators or reviewers with access to what currently is happening on a project. Essentially, digital photographs can act as the "Polaroids" or instant pictures of work progress that are easily transmitted and duplicated (unlike real Polaroids). An advantage digital photographs have over both Polaroid and 35 mm pictures is the ability to use software to lighten, darken, sharpen, or otherwise enhance shots that were over and underexposed. A bad original exposure may still produce a usable digital photograph. Figure 3 was a digital picture taken of Montgomery Incised sherds at the West Virginia Pottery conference. The original photo came out too dark to see the incisions. I lightened and sharpened the details in this photograph. Digital pictures can also be used to set up a web site publicizing the project, if that is desired. Digital photographs are easily copied to 3.5 inch floppies or CD-ROMs which can be sent to many different people for their use.

Figure 4: Collection from Indian County, Pennsylvania.

A digital camera can also be used to take photographs of private collections from sites. Figure 4 is a digital shot of some artifacts that a collector had and Figure 5 is a rock shelter that he showed us. The resulting pictures can be inserted, using the "cut" and "paste" functions, into PASS forms set up for your word processor. PASS forms in HTML and ASCII text (readable by most word processors) formats can be downloaded from the Somerset chapter, SPA site at: Then the PASS form can be transmitted to the BHP or Carnegie Museum either via email or through the U.S. Mail as a hard copy with the photo printed on the form.

Figure 5: Rock Shelter in Indiana County, Pennsylvania.

Proving a digital camera is useful is not a problem, but there are things to consider when deciding to purchase a digital camera. First, you need to determine which digital camera will best suit your needs. Second, a good digital camera is not particularly cheap, but prices are dropping. Finally, the camera's pictures are only as good as the output device on which they are viewed or printed. For example, if you have a high resolution digital camera that handles 1280 x 1024 pixels, but only have a color printer that prints at 300 dpi, then you will loose some resolution of that picture when it prints out. Consequently, purchase of a high resolution digital camera may also require purchase of a better printer to retain picture quality. Digital cameras come in all shapes, sizes, and picture quality. The Fujifilm DX-9 that I purchased two years ago is still surprisingly available. The DX-9 cost $599 two years ago, came with a 2 Meg flashcard (and I purchased an 8 Meg flashcard for $100 to go with it) for storage, and has a resolution of 640 x 480 pixels. It still has a list price of $599, according to one online site. I can not believe they are selling many of them without any discounts because newer models with much better resolution are available at that same price. Other 640 x 480 pixel models can be obtained today between $250 and $500, depending on other camera features. Newer models in the $600 to $1000 price range are usually high resolution cameras having 1024 x 768 pixels or more resolution. Even some 2.1 "megapixel" (1600 x 1200 pixels) models can be obtained in the upper end of that price range.

Nevertheless, the DX-9 has served me well as a camera to record images of the strip mine project localities I visit. I send the images back to the BHP offices in Harrisburg as soon as they are downloaded so they can see the actual project areas instead of some plotted map sent to them by the company. Pictures of the mound from the McCall mine project that were printed in the Fall, 1998 PAC Newsletter were black-and-white copies of digital photos taken with the DX-9. They suffer a little from being printed out on a lower resolution printer. Better examples of digital photos taken with the camera are available for viewing on my web site at:

If you are not planning to make any enlargements of the pictures, which normally print out at about 7 x 10 inches on a printer or full screen on a VGA monitor, then a 640 x 480 pixel model will be sufficient for most needs. However, it you want something that approaches a 35 mm print in quality, then one of the higher resolution models is required. Some of these digital cameras produce very high quality pictures, and I do suffer from "pixel-envy" when I see examples of their photographs. If I was purchasing a digital camera today, I probably would not consider one with a resolution less than 1024 x 768 pixels (and I really want one with at least 1600 x 1200).

There are other options for digital cameras that must be considered besides resolution. An autofocus optical zoom lens with macrofocus capability is a must. The macrofocus ability is required for taking close shots of artifacts, etc. A zoom lens helps enlarge a feature without getting closer to the object being photographed. Unfortunately, most optical zoom lenses on digital cameras are only 2x or 3x and they really do not zoom in on distant features (e.g., a rock shelter up on a cliff) very well. A few have 10x optical zooms that are more useful, Others may be able to zoom up to 10x or more using digital technology. Digital zooms are not really functional since all they do is make pixels bigger. The resultant enlargement has a Cubist-like quality to the picture. Only optical zooms are useful because they actually magnify the image without loss of picture quality. Finally, the lens should be an autofocus lens that can adjust to the distance of the object being photographed. A fixed focus lens, usually found on very cheap models, is less likely to provide a sharp image of the object.

Another feature to check for is whether or not the digital camera has both an optical and a LCD viewfinder for taking photographs. Some cameras come with one or the other of these, but not both. Avoid purchasing cameras with only one type of viewfinder. Each type of viewfinder is useful under certain conditions. A camera with only the LCD viewer may be difficult to use in bright light. The image on the LCD will be washed out by the light and it will be difficult to compose the shot. An optical viewfinder permits the user to actually see the area to be photographed and is similar to those found on 35 mm cameras with viewfinders. Conversely, in low lighting conditions, the LCD will be much easier to see and use than the optical viewfinder. I recommend only purchasing digital cameras that have both types of viewfinders.

A built-in flash is another useful feature. This comes in handy when taking closeup photographs of artifacts indoors or pictures of close objects in low lighting conditions. However, most built-in flash units will not provide sufficient light to photograph distant objects or scenery under low light conditions.

How many pictures a camera can take without having to change the storage medium or without having to download the camera is also important. The 2 Meg flashcard that came with the DX-9 stores about 30 images before it has to be downloaded. The 8 Meg flashcard I actually use provides up to 129 images before it has to be downloaded. Cameras with higher resolutions require even larger storage capacity if they are to provide similar numbers of images. Also, whether or not the camera uses various types of compression methods to store the image will make a difference in how many pictures a given camera can store. High resolution digital cameras often provide options for several different storage algorithms, some using compression others without it, depending on the needs and the quality of the picture desired. Uncompressed high resolution images require much greater storage space than compressed images.

How a digital camera stores images also determines how many images it can take and store. Flash card and flash bar memory are used by most digital cameras for storage. These are small memory cards that slide into the camera. Usually, they can be removed and replaced with additional flash cards/bars for more pictures if you have them. Otherwise, the flash card/bar has to be downloaded and erased before it can be used to store more photographs. Flash cards and flash bars come in a variety of sizes and you should get the largest one you can afford for storage that is compatible with the camera you are purchasing. That will insure the ability to take the most digital photos possible without having to download and erase them. Conversely, most Sony Mavica cameras use 3.5 inch floppy disks for storage of images. Use of 3.5 inch floppies has an advantage over flash cards/bars in that they can be directly taken out of the camera, placed in the computer and viewed without having to download the images from the camera. The main disadvantage of using 3.5 inch floppy disks is their limited storage capacity of 1.44 Megs and the need to carry around a box of blank diskettes for additional image storage.

The power source for the camera may also be important in deciding which camera to purchase. Some use rechargeable nickel-cadmium batteries, others use AA batteries. The advantage of a nickel-cadmium battery is that it is rechargable and fairly long lasting. However, if you run out of power when using the camera (note: you will NOT lose pictures taken prior to this if they are already stored on the flash card/bar or diskette), you will need an extra charged nickel-cadmium battery to continue to use it. The extra battery can be relatively expensive as a separate purchase. Conversely, if the camera uses AA batteries that die, it is fairly easy to carry a replacement supply or find a store that carries them so you can continue to use the camera. The DX-9 uses a rechargeable nickel-cadmium battery. I have never run out of power using it, including the day I shot over 150 pictures of the Bushy Run re-enactment (with one download). However, I rarely used the LCD viewfinder that day, which uses much more power than the optical viewfinder (which uses no power).

The camera should come with software and equipment to download the pictures into your computer. Some now use the Universal Serial Bus (USB) to connect to computers. Others use a RS232C serial port for downloading. Check your computer to be certain you have one or both of these ports before buying the camera. You should get a digital camera that can connect to your system without having to get adapters, etc.

Finally, consideration should be given to the shape of the camera. For some reason, digital cameras have been housed in some very odd shapes (some of this probably is due to the CCD used to capture the image). Many look like versions of point-and-shoot 35 mm cameras. I personally prefer those shapes since I am used to working with 35 mm cameras. Others do not resemble any 35 mm camera on the market. It takes some adjustment to get used to them if you have used 35 mm cameras. Ultimately, you should visit a camera or electronics (since digital cameras are often viewed as an electronic, not photographic, item) store and check them out to see what you find comfortable to use.

After considering all the features you want, it is time to determine which cameras have them and what they cost. You should be able to get a good high resolution camera with most of the features listed above for between $500 and $1000. Several web sites provide up to date information about digital cameras, their specifications and cost. The following web sites can be checked for that information:

Digital Photography Review (a super site for reviews of cameras):

CompareNET (compare specs and prices):

PC Magazine Digital Camera page (good reviews and comparisons)

Digital Eyes website (reviews and prices):

ZDNet Reviews of Digital Cameras:,7761,2163603,00.html

Digital Camera Resource Page (worth the visit for general info and reviews):

Short course in Digital Photography (just as the name implies and reviews):

If you really want to get fancy and money is no object, there are professional models of digital cameras that really produce near film quality pictures. The Nikon D1 uses interchangeable lenses (and can use most Nikkor lenses made for their 35 mm cameras), has a resolution of 2012 x 1324 pixels and the camera body alone costs $5,580.00! That is the top of the line for digital cameras right now.

Once you have purchased a high resolution digital camera, you may have to find a high resolution color printer to print copies of the pictures. Fortunately, they are available and are not outrageously priced. I checked on printers at an electronics shop in Monroeville. Lexmark has two color inkjet printers with a resolution of 1200 x 1200 dpi. One was on sale for $99 with a rebate that took it down to $55 (but this is definitely not a heavy duty machine). The other was about $160. Hewlett-Packard also had a high resolution professional model ink jet that ran about $380. Printing with a special photographic ink cartridge on paper designed for images, the HP machine made some excellent prints of high resolution digital camera photos taken in the store while I was there.

I highly recommend getting a read-write CD-ROM for storing images if you do not have one. Digital photographs will eventually take up a lot of space on your computer hard drive, and you will have to offload them to some type of secondary storage medium. CD-ROMs are preferred because many images can be put on a single CD-ROM (~625 Megs of storage space). They can then be easily accessed from any computer that has a read only CD player and a copy of the CD-ROM disk. It would take 434 3.5 inch floppy diskettes to hold a similar amount of images.

Digital camera technology is coming of age. They are useful tools and, in my opinion, worth the initial expense to document projects. The up front cost of obtaining the camera is mitigated somewhat by not having to purchase film or pay for development costs once you have the camera. The only additional expense will be paying for diskettes or CD-ROMs to store the images. Mark A. McConaughy Bureau for Historic Preservation

Mark A. McConaughy
PA Bureau for Historic Preservation


The Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, District 9-0 and Federal Highway Administration have produced a children's book on the Monongahela as part of the Rt. 119 data recovery program in Somerset County. The book was written by Varna Boyd and Kathleen Furgenson, Greenhorne and O'Mara, Inc. and can be obtained from Dain Davis, District 9-0 Environmental Manager, 1620 North Juniata Street, Hollidaysburg, PA 16648.

The Pennsylvania Department of Transportation and Indiana University of Pennsylvania are planning a conference with a preliminary title: "Byways to the Past: Recent Results from Historic and Archaeological Investigations in State Transportation Projects". The conference is scheduled for March 8-9 at IUP and will feature 11 speakers presenting summaries of significant projects through out the Commonwealth. The results of the conference will be published in CD-Rom format and on the internet. For more details or if you are interested in being considered as a presenter, please contact Dr. Beverly Chiarulli, Archaeological Services, McElhaney G-12, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Indiana, PA 15705, email:, (724) 357-2659.

Remember that the 65th Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology will be held in Philadelphia this spring. The dates are April 5-9th at the Philadelphia Marriott. For detailed information, consult the SAA Website:

The Pennsylvania Historic Preservation Plan has been released by the Historical and Museum Commission and Preservation Pennsylvania. Unlike the initial questionnaire, the final plan does include archaeological sites as one of the Commonwealth special places to be preserved. For a copy, contact the PHMC. Brenda Barrett has been complimenting the archaeologists in the state for attending all but one of the public meetings about the plan and providing focused comments. One recommendation in the Action Plan is to explore the establishment of an Archaeology Trust Fund to support the Commonwealth Archaeology Program and to consider a tax incentive program to encourage owners to preserve archaeological sites on their properties.

Ceramics and Delaware Valley Prehistory: Insights from the Abbott Farm, by R. M. Stewart,1998. Trenton Complex Archaeology Report 14. Special Publication of the Archaeological Society of New Jersey and the New Jersey Department of Transportation, Trenton, is now available. This monograph includes a synthesis of Delaware Valley ceramic typology, radiocarbon dates, and issues regarding prehistoric ceramics. Valley-wide trends are also examined in the context of ceramic development throughout the Middle Atlantic Region. The monograph can be obtained through the Archaeological Society of New Jersey, or from Michael Stewart, Department of Anthropology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122. The only cost is a $5 shipping and handling charge.


Middle Atlantic Archaeological Conference
Date: 24-26 March 2000
Place: Ocean City, Maryland

Pennsylvania Archaeological Council
Date: 5 May 2000
Place: Williamsport, Pennsylvania

Society for Pennsylvania Archaeology
Date: 5-7 May 2000
Place: Williamsport, Pennsylvania

Eastern States Archaeological Federation
Date 2-5 November 2000
Place: Solomons, Maryland

** Please send notices of upcoming events to the editor.


PAC encourages its members to join the Society for Pennsylvania Archaeology. It is important to foster communication between professional and avocational archaeologists. Moreover, membership in SPA supports Pennsylvania Archaeologist in which PAC members often publish.

SPA annual dues are $14.00 for individuals and $16.00 for families, which should be sent to: Archaeological Services, P.O. Box 386, Bethlehem, CT 06751-0386.



Materials for the PAC Newsletter should be sent to:

Philip A. Perazio, KAR, Inc.,
P.O. Box 1117, Stroudsburg, PA 18360
Phone: 717-620-2591; FAX: 717-620-0186

Please send contributions on disk (Wordperfect 6.1 preferred), accompanied by a hard copy. You may also attempt to send submissions as email attachments. However, not all systems are compatible, so this does not always work. Short items, 1 page or less, may be submitted in hard copy or by FAX.

Deadline for next issue:
1 May 2000.

NOTE: Please make sure PAC has your current FAX and/or Email addresses so that we may distribute urgent information as quickly as possible. Send updates to Mark McConaughy.